Saturday, July 12, 2008
AND SHIITAKE) CULTIVATION FOR POOR
AND MARGINALISED PEOPLE UNDER
INCOME GENERATING PROGRAMME (23 MAY TO 25 MAY 2008)
District Soil conservation office
Report Submitted by:
Tika Ram Aryal
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the District Soil Conservation Office, Magdi for giving me this opportunity to help local poor people to generate income resource and improve their life standard through mushroom cultivation in which I was chosen as senior trainer.
I am much indebted to Shoji Fujino (Joetsu International Network Secretary- general, Japan) for providing Shiitake(Lentinus edodus) culture to me, his inspiration and encouragement that made me able to materialize the concept of helping people.
I would like to appreciate the keen interest of Mr.Rajesh Shrestha,Director,Eco-farm,Pokhara and his continuous inspiration to move ahead in this field. I want to express my sincere thanks to Mr.Shree Prasad Yadav Programme Coordinator,Crop Improvement Officer for the arrangement of this programme and also thankful to my assistant Mr. Prem Pokharel
2. HISTORY OF MUSHROOM CULTIVATION
3. COURSE DESIGNING
4. RESOURCE PERSON
7. DOCUMENTS PROVIDED
8. TRAINING DELIVERY
9. METHOD OF CULTIVATION OF PLEUROTUS
1. SELECTION OF SUBSTRATE
2. STERILIZATION 3. INOCULATION 4. INCUBATION 5. HARVESTING
Mushrooms are the members of higher fungi belonging to class Basidiomycetes and some are Ascomycetes. They are fleshy spore bearing organ of fungi and characterized by heterotrophic mode of nutrition. They may be epigeal and hypogeal like any other fungus .The vegetative part of mushroom consists of thread like thin mycelia, which under suitable environmental condition form fruiting bodies. Mushroom occurs under various ecological conditions from desert to forest. They comprise a large heterogeneous group with different shapes, size, color and edibility. They are abundantly found in nature during rainy season .It is difficult to calculate the number of species of fungi, which produce mushroom. Some of the mushrooms are edible and some of them are highly poisonous. Fortunately the number of poisonous genera and species are much fewer.
To the context of Nepal its history of cultivation is not so long. Invention and cultivated mushroom was started from 1976.but nowadays it is fast growing business due to its high profit. Farmers can get output within one month from pleurotus cultivation. Nepal is also one of the countries where mushroom can be cultivated through out the year under natural environmental condition. But in some hot and cold countries it needs highly sophisticated building. It may not be affordable for farmer level. We can use most of agriculture wastage. We have plenty of raw material for mushroom cultivation .Skilled farmers can earn a lot of money from its cultivation .In Nepal some of the valuable wild mushroom are going to be extinct due to its early collection before mature. It is also necessary to develop cultivation technology of such valuable mushroom. Mushroom cultivation also helps to conserve such valuable mushroom. Some of the wild mushroom can take our life but cultivated mushroom are safe for consumption. It has high medicinal and nutritional value. It can solve the malnutrition problem like in our country.
The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) grows under natural condition on wooden logs. This mushroom is also known as “wood fungus” and is commonly known “kanne chyau” in Nepal.
Oyster mushroom is very popular in Nepal where it can be grown all round the year. Being an agricultural country, we have plenty of raw materials for its cultivation. Farmers can get output within short period along with its high profit. Some of the highly profitable and easy to cultivate mushroom species in Nepal are Pleurotus sp., Agaricus sp. and Lentinus sp. Among these Pleurotus is cultivated throughout the country while Agaricus is cultivated by highly experienced farmers and Lentinus is newly introduced mushroom which has been initiated to cultivate it by hardly a few farmers. Pleurotus species are characterized by the rapidity of the mycelia growth and high saprophytic colonization ability to breakdown cellulose and lignin bearing materials easily without fermentation.
The different species of Pleurotus that can be grown in temperature range of 15oc to 30oc. P. sajorcaju can tolerate temperature up to 300c although it bears fruiting bodies faster and produces larger basidiocarp at 250c. P. ostreatus is called low temperature Pleurotus with its fruiting bodies mostly at 12-200c.
The consumption of edible fungi as food and drug is closely related to the history of mankind. Even the early men know the special properties of mushroom. They called them God’s flesh. Mushrooms were first cultivated in France in 1650.The method of cultivation of temperate mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was first developed by a French Gardener in A.D.1700.It was then taken up in England and from there spared to America. The cultivation of mushroom in the USA was first introduced in the later part of the 19 th century. In the east mushroom began to be grown on commercial scale in the People’s Republic of China, South Korea and Taiwan (Singh, 1997).
The oriental mushroom Lentinus edodes and Volvariella volvacea have been cultivated for 2000 years in China and Japan. Their cultivation technology according to Singer (1961) must be a very ancient art. The method of cultivation of jaw’s ear (Auricularia sp) has been recorded in the ancient Chinese Publication Liki about 300Bc.
The authentic record are available only for Agaricus biosporus(bottom mushroom).whose cultivation was introduced into Paris(France)around A.D.700 by an unknown French horticulturist in the open. Towards the end of the seventeenth century, someone whose name is not recorded involved a method of treating horse manure and planting it with the spawn of wild mushroom. But the first time published method of mushroom cultivation is by Tournefort a Frenchman (Kapoor, 1999).
Although cultivation technology of different mushroom were developed in the foreign country much earlier, but to the context of Nepal, workshops and invention of mushroom cultivation was started later on. In 1974, Plant Pathology Division started research on mushroom cultivation. At first time research focused on Agaricus about compost preparation by using horse dung with different ingredients. Finally by using solon formula, paddy straw compost was identified. Two seasons of cultivation were also identified as-
Agaricus can be harvested from March to May, if spawn is inoculated in compost January.
Agaricus can be harvested from September- November if spawn is inoculated at July
In 1977, the cultivation technology was extended to the farmers.
In 1984, the number of mushroom grower was about 50-60 only.
In 1984, the cultivation technology of Pleurotus was introduced to Nepal. After spawn preparation and lab test the cultivation technology extended to the farmers in 1984-85.At that time number of farmers was about 100-150.
In 1992, Australian project helped to conduct training programme at different places of Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur and Kabre.
Outside the Kathmandu valley CAT worked on collaboration with different organization.
In Kaski District, in collaboration with Li-Bird, CAT provided Technology and spawn to the Li-bird. CAT also trained to the trainees of Li-Bird and supervised mushroom growers.
In Nawalparasi, in Collaboration with ILO programme, cultivation technology for Pleurutus and Volvariella was introduced at Terai for winter and summer respectively (in1999-2000).
In 2000-2003, research was carried for Shiitake on different fast growing trees by CAT(Centre for Agriculture Technology). Among them, Alnus sp and Castonopsis sp. were recommended for its cultivation. But still it seems necessary to carry on further research on different wooden logs in context of Nepal. Nowadays, popularity of mushroom consumption is increasing. Therefore number of farm is growing up. Even private farms have started to prepare, distribute the spawn and provide the training for farmeR.
The Course for the training was designed for 3 days.
The resource person,Tika Ram Aryal, Lecturer, Prithivi Narayan Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal and He is highly experienced and qualified on the relevant field. He has conducting a number of such training programmes successfully. He has been involved in such programmes to improve the economic status of poor people through cultivation of highly potential varieties of mushroom since 2000. Prem Pokherel is also assisting him during training period.
The participants were first pre-evaluated to know their basic level and catching power.
4. Practical.5. Discussion.
Inoculation of shiitake spawns in wooden lOG
There were altogether 30 participants in training programme. All of them were under SLC and have low economic condition. They were from different Village Development Committee of Magdi district. Among them 25 were female and 5 were male.
LIST OF THE PARTICIPANTS
NAME OF PARTICIPANTS
Shanta Devi k. c.
Aagit Kumar Rasayali
Sun Badhur B.K.
Dev Kumari K.C
Bhim Badhur Banya
Hari Krishna Khhatri
Bhim Prashad Poudel
Kul Badhhur B.K.
Nir Kumari Shai
Babya chaur 1
Document provided to participants are:
1. Scope of mushroom cultivation.
2. History of mushroom cultivation.
3. Method of distinguishing between edible and poisonous mushroom.
4. Life cycle of mushroom.
5. Nutritional and medicinal value of Shiitake and pleurotus.
6. Factors affecting Shiitake cultivation and pleurotus cultivation.
7. Site requirement for Shiitake cultivation and pleurotus cultivation.
8. Step for shiitake cultivation.
· Preparation of logs.
· Inoculation of logs with shitake spawns.
· Allowing Shitake to colonize the wood.
· Inducing fruiting.
9. Steps for Pleurotus cultivation.
· Selection of substrate (rice straw).
· Making of small piece of straw by cutting.
· Soaking of Straw in clean water.
· Sterilization of straw.
· Inoculation of the spawn after cooling of straw.
· Incubation of balls.
· Inducing of fruiting body.
It was opening ceremony of mushroom cultivation training. Mr. Shree Prashad Yadav (Crop Improvement Officer) delivered speech about the programme and opening ceremony was started by lightning mastered lamp on Panas.
Trainer Tika Ram Aryal highlighted about training, scope and market value of different types of mushroom.
On that day, introduction of trainee and trainer was also done.
· Pre evaluation.
· Knowledge share about wild mushroom as well as cultivated mushroom.
· History of mushroom cultivation.
· Preparation of wooden logs for Shiitake cultivation and selection of Substrate for Pleurotus cultivation and making of small piece of straw and it was soaked with clean water.
· Nutritional and medicinal value of mushroom.
· General discussion about cultivated mushroom of Nepal.
· Care of the logs for Shiitake and sterilization of straw for pleurotus cultivation.
· Inoculation of Shiitake spawns in logs.
· Arrangement of inoculated logs under shade.
· Inoculation of Pleurotus spwan with substrate.
· Incubation of the prepared balls.
· Maintenance of suitable environment for mycelium running.
· Maintenance of suitable environment for inducing fruiting body.
· Method of irrigation.
· Identification of matured mushroom and harvesting.
· Process of drying/packing.
· Discussion about marketing.
METHOD OF CULTIVATION OF PLEUROTUS
There are several methods of cultivation of Pleurotus sp. With only little difference or modification, cultivation in plastic bag is very popular in Nepal. Following steps are recommended for its cultivation:
1. SELECTION OF SUBSTRATE
Selection of substrates for Pleurotus cultivation is most important aspect. Pleurotus can be cultivated on various substrates which are available. It can be cultivated on pure substrate or combination of different substrates. It can be grown on various agricultural waste materials. They grow well on a mixture of saw dust and other combination of tropical wastes such as corn cobs and leaves, cotton waste, sugarcane bagasse and leaves. Rice straw has been used widely for its cultivation in Nepal.
Before sterilization rice straw is chopped to about 5 cm or smaller length. The chopped straw is soaked in water overnight. For the best result the straw should be immersed in boiling water drained off. If wheat straw is used, it should be softened by composting for a week Sterilization can be done with the help of drum. There should be 4”×6” water in the drum where three or four bricks should be kept upright position; perforated round plate of tin should be kept on bricks. Then, the drum should be filled with moist straw. It should be steamed for half an hour to kill all insects and wild fungus. After steam sterilization it should be cooled either in drum itself or in big plastic bag. In context of Nepal farmers are using this method for sterilization as they don’t have any other well equipment for sterilization. So complete sterilization can not be assured by this method.
Most of farmers in our country are not taking care during sterilization. So, they have to face contamination problem. Some farmers expose the sterilized straw in air for cooling .Sterilized straw should not be exposed in air to avoid contamination. For Pleurotus cultivation straw should be well sterilized.
Method of sterilization of straw in Nepal
Cultivation of Pleurotus is usually carried out in transparent polythene bags. It is not necessary the size of plastic bag should be fixed. However experience show that small bag is good for summer season and large size bag is good for winter season. Plastic bag filling method is popular in Nepal. For inoculation of the spawn; it would be good to have bag size -14” × 22” (in summer) or 16” × 26”(in winter). Spawn should be spread in every layer of straw of 6-8 cm. height and pressed the straw slightly to make bag compact. After filling the bag with spawn and straw, mouth of the bag should be tied with thread. Small holes should be made for aeration. Inoculation should be done with clean hand. Ones should be careful during inoculation to minimize the possibility of contamination as far as possible. It would be better to have a separate room for inoculation
Participants inoculating spawn
It is the process of providing suitable environmental conditions to run mycelium well in substratum. Hanging system in which balls are placed one above another, is very popular in Nepal. About 400 balls can be adjusted in small tunnel which is made in an area of 9m×4m. The tunnel can be prepared simply by using bamboo and plastic. To maintain the temperature, tunnel can be covered by straw mat. It takes different time period for mycelium to run in substratum depending upon weather- 30 to 35 days in winter and 20 to 25 days in summer. No need to be worried even if it takes a bit longer time to bear fruiting body in winter, it may be due to the low temperature. But in summer mycelium can cover the whole substrate with in 25 days. In Nepal, the most dangerous problem during incubation period is Green Mould.
During fruiting body formation ventilation of the tunnel should be opened so that fresh air can be flow easily. Temperature and humidity should be maintained. Large size mushroom can be produced if we cut the ball from one side. Light water spray is necessary two times per day. When temperature is low, fruiting body matured at about 7-8 days but when temperature is high it matured within 3-4 days. Some farmers are able to produced one kilogram fresh mushroom from one kilogram of dry straw.
Mushroom cultivation is actively growing business in Nepal.Mostly four types of mushrooms are very popular in Nepal. They are Agiricus, Pleurotus Volverella and Lentinus(Shiitake). Shiitake is newly introduced mushroom in Nepal. Its popularity is increasing day by day due to the plenty of wooden logs and less labor as compared to other mushroom, high selling price and long time production. Another important cause of increasing interest of farmers to cultivate mushroom is available of raw material for all kind of mushrooms and good environmental condition where mushroom cultivation can be done through out the year under natural condition or on little modified environment.
Training was given about Pleurotus and Shiitake. They prepared 60 balls for Pleurotus. Shiitake training was given just for introduction and knowledge because this is not a good season for shiitake cultivation on natural logs. But farmers were very interested to cultivate shiitake then Pleurotus. At the end of training 10 bottle spawn and 1 kg plastic bag was provided to each farmer to cultivate mushroom on their own houses.
Because the training place was very remote with out transportation facility some farmers came to the training place by walking the distance of two days to take training. This shows their keen interest on mushroom cultivation. The training appeared quite fruitful. Its success was illustrated by cheerful face and excitement of participants during training period. Farmers are highly motivated and hopeful to improve their living standard by highly profitable with low investment technology. Farmers were eager to extend their cultivation in large scale.
Hope farmers will get high profit from its production and motivated to continue its cultivation next time.
Since the prime motto of the training was to help people of Nepal living under poverty line, the programme seems necessary to extend in other parts of the country. The government of Nepal, national and international organizations should consider this aspect as an mean to eradicate poverty of Nepalese people, so policy makers and other stakeholders are strongly recommended to extend and elaborate such type of programmes throughout the Nepal.
Master Degree in science(M.Sc.in Botany)Division: first
Major subject: Botany
Thesis: Mushroom Cultivation(cultivation of Agaricus biosperous and Pleurotus sajorcaju on substrate with different ingredients)
1. Assistance Lecturer of T.U.
2. Managing Director of Himilayan Mushroom Resource and development centre(2002 to till)
3. Senior trainer for mushroom cultivation training at soil and watershed conservation at Syanga.2007(1 month)
4.Senior trainer for mushroom cultivation training at soil and watershed conservation at Syanga.2007(1 month)
5. Senior trainer for mushroom cultivation training at soil and watershed conservation at Syanga.(2007(1 month))
6. Senior trainer for mushroom cultivation training at WOCAST-1 month.
7. Senior trainer for mushroom cultivation training for Awarness Development Centre(1 month)
8. Senior trainer for mushroom cultivation training at Awarness Development Centre(1 month)
9. Senior trainer for mushroom cultivation training at Awarness Development Centre(1 month)
10. Senior trainer for mushroom cultivation training at Annapurna Herbal Development Cooperative limited(Dhampus-two months)
11. Senior trainer for mushroom cultivation training at Annapurna Herbal Development Cooperative limited(Dhampus-two months)
12. Senior trainer for mushroom cultivation training at Pokhara, submetropolitician.(1 week)
13. Local Effect of large Scale Global Changes: A case study in the Himalayas, Nepal(November 2 to April 2006).Pokhara,Nepal.
14. National Seminar on Sustainable Use of Biological Resource(April 22 to 25(2007)
"TOT" training by F-skill Nepal(3 Days)
15. Development of Training Curricula
16. Development of two month mushroom cultivation training curriculum for F-Skill,Nepal.
Name:Tika Ram Aryal
Date of birth:1975/9/23
Permanent Address:Turang -3,Gulmi